Friday, 3 June 2011

Introduction to Wing Chun Style of Kungfu

Wing Chun was originally passed down from teacher to teacher orally rather than through written documentation, making it difficult to confirm or clarify the differing accounts of its creation. Some have sought to apply the methods of higher criticism to the oral histories of Wing Chun and other Chinese martial arts. Others have attempted to discern the origins of Wing Chun by determining the specific purpose of its techniques. Mentions of the art start to appear in independent third-party documentation during the era of the Wing Chun master Leung Jan, making its subsequent history and divergence into various branches more amenable to documentary verification.
The common legend as told by Ip Man involves the young woman Yim Wing Chun (Wing Chun literally means forever springtime or praising spring) at the time after the destruction of the Southern Shaolin and its associated temples by the Qing government. After Wing Chun rebuffs the local warlord's marriage offer, he says he'll reconsider his proposal if she can beat him in a martial art match. She asks a Buddhist nun- Ng Mui, who was one of the Shaolin Sect survivors, to teach her boxing; this still nameless style enables Yim Wing Chun to defeat the warlord. She thereafter marries Leung Bac-Chou and teaches him the style, which he names after her.
Since the system was developed during the Shaolin and Ming resistance to the Qing Dynasty many legends about the creator of Wing Chun were spread to confuse the enemy, including the story of Yim Wing Chun. This perhaps explains why no one has been able to accurately determine the creator or creators of Wing Chun.

Balance, structure and stance

Wing Chun practitioners believe that the person with better body structure will win. A correct Wing Chun stance is like a piece of bamboo, firm but flexible, rooted but yielding. This structure is used to either deflect external forces or redirect them.
Balance is related to structure because a well-balanced body recovers more quickly from stalled attacks and structure is maintained. Wing Chun trains the awareness of one's own body movement derived from muscular, tendon, and articular sources. Performing Wing Chun's forms such as Chum Kiu or the Wooden Dummy form greatly improve proprioception. Wing Chun favours a high, narrow stance with the elbows kept close to the body. Within the stance, arms are positioned across the vitals of the centerline. Shifting or turning within a stance is carried out variantly on the heels, balls, or middle (K1 or Kidney 1 point) of the foot depending on lineage. All attacks and counter-attacks are initiated from this firm, stable base. Wing Chun rarely compromises structure for more powerful attacks because this is believed to create defensive openings which may be exploited.
Structure is viewed as important, not only for reasons of defense, but also for attack. When the practitioner is effectively "rooted", or aligned so as to be braced against the ground, the force of the hit is believed to be far more devastating. Additionally, the practice of "settling" one's opponent to brace them more effectively against the ground aids in delivering as much force as possible to them.


Softness (via relaxation) and performing techniques in a relaxed manner, is fundamental to Wing Chun.
  • Tension reduces punching speed and power. Muscles act in pairs in opposition to each other (e.g. biceps and triceps). If the arm is tensed, maximum punching speed cannot be achieved as the biceps will be opposing the extension of the arm. In Wing Chun, the arm should be relaxed before beginning the punching motion.
  • Unnecessary muscle tension wastes energy and causes fatigue.
  • Tense, stiff arms are less fluid and sensitive during trapping and chi sao.
  • A tense, stiff limb provides an easy handle for an opponent to push or pull with, whereas a relaxed limb provides an opponent less to work with.
  • A relaxed, but focused, limb affords the ability to feel "holes" or weaknesses in the opponent's structure (see Sensitivity section). With the correct forwarding these "holes" grant a path into attacking the opponent.
  • Muscular struggle reduces a fight to who is stronger. Minimum brute strength in all movement becomes an equalizer in uneven strength confrontations. This is very much in the spirit of the tale of Ng Mui.


While the existence of a "central axis" concept is unified in Wing Chun, the interpretation of the centerline concept itself is not. Many variations exist, with some lineages defining anywhere from a single "centerline" to multiple lines of interaction and definition. The most commonly seen interpretation emphasizes attack and defense along an imaginary horizontal line drawn from the center of the practitioner's chest to the center of the enemy's chest. The human body's prime striking targets are considered to be on or near this line, including eyes, nose, throat, solar plexus and groin.
Wing Chun techniques are generally "closed", with the limbs drawn in to protect the central area and also to maintain balance. In most circumstances, the hands do not move beyond the vertical circle that is described by swinging the arms in front, with the hands crossed at the wrists. To reach outside this area, footwork is used. A large emphasis and time investment in training Chi Sao exercise emphasises positioning to dominate this centerline. The stance and guard all point at or through the center to concentrate physical and mental intent of the entire body to the one target.
Wing Chun practitioners attack within this central area to transmit force more effectively, since it targets the "core center" (or "mother line", another center defined in some lineages and referring to the vertical axis of the human body where the center of gravity lies). For example, striking an opponent's shoulder will twist the body, dispelling some of the force and weakening the strike, as well as compromising the striker's position. Striking closer to the center transmits more force directly into the body.


Because of the emphasis on the center line, the vertical fist straight punch is the most common strike in Wing Chun. However, the principle of simultaneous attack and defense (Lin Sil Die Dar) suggests that all movements in the Siu Nim Tau with a forward execution flow into a strike if no effective resistance is met, without need for recomposure. Other explicit examples of punches can be found in the Chum Kiu and Bil Jee forms, although these punches may appear to be superficially different they are simply the result of the punch beginning from a different origin position while following the same fundamental idea, to punch in a straight line following the shortest distance between the fist and the opponent.
The vertical punch is the most basic and fundamental in Wing Chun and is usually thrown with the elbow down and in front of the body. Depending on the lineage, the fist is held anywhere from vertical to horizontal (palm side up). The contact points also vary from the top two knuckles, to the middle two knuckles, to the bottom three knuckles. In some lineages of Wing Chun, the fist is swivelled at the wrist on point of impact so that the bottom three knuckles are thrust forward adding power to the punch while it is at maximum extension.
The punches may be thrown in quick succession in a "straight blast" or "chain punching". When executed correctly, it can be used as a disorienting finisher.
However, it is often misunderstood and criticized for encouraging weaker punches that do not utilize the whole body. But in fact, the formal name of it in Chinese is translated as "The Sun-character Rushing Punch(or Hammer in Cantonese)", practitioner typically would rush forward with his full body weight "throwing" towards his opponent, with the fist as the "nail", and his full body weight as the "hammer". Also with each successive punch, practitioner would step in closer and closer to the opponent, and hence maximize the so-called "power in an inch" without the need of big swings or big punches.
Wing Chun favours the vertical punch for several reasons:
Grand Master Bruce Lee
  • Directness. The punch is not "loaded" by pulling the elbow behind the body. The punch travels straight towards the target from the guard position (hands are held in front of the chest).
  • Protection. The elbow is kept low to cover the front midsection of the body. It is more difficult for an opponent to execute an elbow lock/break when the elbow occupies this position. This aids in generating power by use of the entire body structure rather than only the arm to strike. Also with the elbow down, it offers less opening for the body to be attacked while the forearm and punch intercept space towards the head and upper body.
  • Strength and Impact. Wing Chun practitioners believe that because the elbow is behind the fist during the strike, it is thereby supported by the strength of the entire body rather than just a swinging fist, and therefore has more impact. A common analogy is a baseball bat being swung at someone's head (a round-house punch), as opposed to the butt end of the bat being thrust forward into the opponent's face (wing chun punch), which would cause far more damage than a glancing hit and is not as easy to evade. Many skilled practitioners pride themselves on being able to generate "short power" or large amount of power in a short space. A common demonstration of this is the "one-inch punch", a punch that starts only an inch away from the target yet delivers an explosive amount of force.
  • Alignment & Structure. Because of Wing Chun's usage of stance, the vertical punch is thus more suitable. The limb directly in front of the chest, elbow down, vertical nature of the punch allows a practitioner to absorb the rebound of the punch by directing it through the elbows and into the stance. This is a desirable trait to a Wing Chun practitioner because it promotes use of the entire body structure to generate power. Whereas, the rebound of a horizontal punch uses only the arm to strike. In this elbow-out position the hinge-structure directs force outwards along the limb producing torque in the puncher's body.


Kicks can be explicitly found in the Chum Kiu and Mook Jong forms, though some have made interpretations of small leg movements in the Siu Nim Tau and Bil Jee to contain information on kicking as well. Depending on lineage, a beginner is often introduced to basic kicking before learning the appropriate form. Traditionally, kicks are kept below the waist. This is characteristic of southern Chinese martial arts, in contrast to northern systems which utilise many high kicks.
Variations on a front kick are performed striking with the heel. The body may be square and the knee and foot are vertical on contact (Chum Kiu), or a pivot may be involved with the foot and knee on a plane at an angle (Mook Jong). At short distances this can become a knee. A roundhouse kick is performed striking with the shin in a similar manner to the Muay Thai version with most of the power coming from the body pivot. This kick is usually used as a finisher at closer range, targeting anywhere between the ribs and the back of the knee, this kick can also become a knee at close range. Other kicks include a stamping kick (Mook Jong) for very close range and a sweep performed with the heel in a circular fashion.
Every kick is both an attack and defence, with legs being used to check incoming kicks or to take the initiative in striking through before a more circular kick can land. Kicks are delivered in one movement directly from the stance without chambering/cocking.

Uncommitted techniques

Wing Chun techniques are uncommitted. This means that if the technique fails to connect, the practitioner's position or balance is less affected. If the attack fails, the practitioner is able to "flow" easily into a follow-up attack. All Wing Chun techniques permit this. Any punches or kicks can be strung together to form a "chain" of attacks. According to Wing Chun theory, these attacks, in contrast to one big attack, break down the opponent gradually causing internal damage. Chained vertical punches are a common Wing Chun identifier.

Trapping skills and sensitivity

The Wing Chun practitioner develops reflexes within the searching of unsecured defenses through use of sensitivity. Training through Chi Sao with a training partner, one practices the trapping of hands. When an opponent is "trapped", he or she becomes immobile.
Chinese philosophy:

"Greet what arrives, escort what leaves and rush upon loss of contact"- Yip Man

Close range

Wing Chun teaches practitioners to advance quickly and strike at close range. While the Wing Chun forward kick can be considered a long range technique, many Wing Chun practitioners practice "entry techniques"—getting past an opponent's kicks and punches to bring him within range of Wing Chun's close range repertoire. This means that theoretically, if the correct techniques are applied, a shorter person with a shorter range can defeat a larger person by getting inside his range and attacking him close to his body.

Introduction to Kungfu Toa Style


Kung fu toa is an elegant and effective kung fu style which is deeply rooted in an understanding of human physiology and designed to help practitioners to reach a healthier mind and body.
Grand Master Ibrahim Mirzaii developed kung fu toa in early 1970. This style then reached Europe and North America during 1980’s. Kung fu toa is currently being practiced by millions of people all over the world. Performing a kung fu toa technique is an art which combines the mind, body and spirit. The techniques are based on circular motions, and utilizing all the joints and muscles in human body. In kung fu the key emphasis are meditation, physical training, Self-defense, self-discipline, respect, positive character, self-discovery, and self-Confidence.
By practicing kung fu toa students learn how to get fit, acquire a positive trend of thoughts, and apply their progress to their daily life. This is the road to a healthy society where human is the constituents of every community.

The Founder of Kungfu Toa

Kung Fu To'a was developed by the Iranian martial artist, Ibrahim Mirzaii from the 1950s to 1970s. Mirzaii developed and created his style aimed at allowing all body energy to be used at its best.
Financially supported by shah Reza Pahlavi Mirzaii started a journey through Asia in order to learn different martial arts and to create a unique style, which should have Iranian characteristics. His journey laid the foundation of Kung Fu To'A.
Grand Master Mirzaii had an intricate knowledge of Tae Kwon Do / Karate / Southern Shaolin Kung Fu and Yoga with some Tai Chi. These were combined to create Kung Fu To'a style. The mental and physical training of Kung Fu To'a renders the body lean, flexible, fast and very powerful able to unleash an enormous amount of power within a split second. It took Mirzai about 25 years to compile his unique style.
During the revolution in Iran in 1978/1979 the shah was overthrown. After the Iranian Revolution, To'a was banned (though there are many Kung fu to'a schools in Iran today). Mirzaii faced hostility from Islamic authorities, particularly for the spiritual aspects of his teaching. He was shot in his legs few years after the Revolution. Mirzaii first fled to Turkey, then to Europe but his whereabouts is still unknown.
After prohibition in Iran and disappearance of Mirzaii, trainers in the Iranian diaspora continued to spread To'a. Today, it is organised in at least ten countries in Europe,Americas and Middle East. A couple of years ago this style was legalised again in Iran and is nowadays one of the most popular martial arts there. Nevertheless To'A is in other countries still a quite unknown Kung Fu style. Several movies about e.g. Shaolin Kung Fu made these styles more famous than To'A

The seven Forms

Stripes show a practitioner's level. Here: fourth form Samsamae
There are mainly seven forms in Kung Fu To'A. Instead of form terms like khat or line are in common usage as well. A form is a fix motion sequence composed of many different techniques, which serve as self-defence and attacks or follows energetic aspects. Each of these forms will be examined by at least one master. If a practitioner passes an examination he gets a stripe on his right chest of the training jacket.
Beyond the physical education each of the seven forms deals with a given philosophical topic.
  1. Anato'A
  2. Atado
  3. Soto
  4. Samsamae
  5. Mayana
  6. Kuanna & Vest Mayana
    Stripes show a practitioner's level. Here:
     fourth form Samsamae
    The sixth grade of Kung Fu To'A consists of two forms: Kuanna and Vest Mayana (Vest Mayana is also called "Vest Ai").

  7. Vaymabato

  8. Officially a green belt is given to To'A students after they passed the examination of the seventh form. When a student passes the examination for the master grade, a red jacket is handed to him. Originally further forms without weapons have been planned, based on the existing forms. Because of the given historical events (prohibition of Kung Fu To'A, attack on Mirzaii) only "Anato'A sabz" (also called green or brown Anato'A) was officially passed on. Since these additions to the system of Kung Fu To'A starting with Anato'A sabz haven't been completed, Vaymabato can be considered as a close. Thus, several schools already pass the black belt after the seventh form instead of the green belt.
There are, though, two additional weapon forms, which have been passed on: Sai and Rekeyma (Samurai sword).


Folded Belt of Kungfu Toa Master, "The three different sized folds mean "Think well. Talk well. Act well."
The belt is of red fabric and has a broad colored stripe in its middle. According to the student's level the middle stripe can be white, green, brown or black. The red belt is supposed to be worn only by Grandmaster Mirzaii.
A folded belt has on one side three folds of different sizes representing "Think well. Talk well. Act well.".


Kung Fu is the world of motion, motion of power, motion of beauty, motion of justice and humanity, motion to a healthy society. Kung Fu is motion to pure thought, where its secret lies in the language of the soul. This means the path of heart, the (re)discovery of pure knowledge, which we already have in us. Kung Fu To'A practices use the body as a "portal" to this path. By powerful motion Kung Fu teaches you strength and courage to let go of known, to reexperience who you are and to realize the whole spectrum of your soul.
Another way to achieve self-awareness is meditation. It is used for cleaning your mind, freeing from thoughts to enhance presence and to face your ego.
An analogue to the path of pure heart and to the teachings of the seven forms of Kung Fu To'A can be found in Persian literature: "The Conference of the Birds" by Fariduddin Attar.

Conference of the Birds - the Simorgh

"Conference of the Birds" ("Manteq-ot-teir") by Fariduddin Attar is a Persian story about thousands of birds starting a journey through seven valleys to find Simorgh - king of the birds. The seven valleys are the valley of desire (let go of property), the valley of love (let go of learned moral concepts like "Good" and "Bad" and feeling the pure emotion of love), the valley of knowledge (breakout from familiarity and realizing the connection between body and mind), the valley of self-sufficiency (abandonment of knowledge and heart and to quest for new), the valley of unity (realize that everything in our world is connected to each other), the valley of confusion (establishes different perspectives on being and not-being, you realize your mortality and immortality at the same time) and at last the valley of death (achieving immortality by accepting to become part of the whole). Each of the seven valleys is a hurdle and represents an attribute the birds have to let go of to reach the Simorgh. The birds learn more and more about who they really are.
Of all birds only 30 achieve their goal and being there they realize that they are the Simorgh. The term "Simorgh" consists of the Persian words for "thirty" (si) and "birds" (murgh).


One of the most common symbols of Kung Fu To'A is a falcon with spread wings. This could be originated in a tale about the Simorgh, where he spreads with one flap the seeds of the tree of life all over the world. Furthermore falcons are considered to be extremely beady-eyed and sharp-sighted. Their eye-sight, hunting abilities, grace and force at flying are outstanding characteristics.

"The falcon teaches us control of speed and motion, as well as patience. He represents recognizing opportunities and to act at the right time. He teaches us that we have to make great efforts to achieve great success. He represents leadership, prudence and caution. He stands for a fast, graceful mind and for how to use our mental capabilities more effectively to "catch" what we need and want the most by being more patient."